Dental Illustrations

Dental Illustrations

How it’s done .

This appendix offers you a quick study of the major cosmetic dentistry techniques presented in this book.Take a few minutes to read about the solutions suggested for your particular problem so you can understand better the procedures your dentist is offering you. The more knowledge you obtain prior to your consultation, the better able you’ll be to ask specific questions and the best decision for your smile.

Bonding

Bonding with composite resin was introduced approximately 50 years ago. The tooth enamel is gently etched to enhance adhesion before a dentist applies color-matched resin compound over a stained, crooked, short, chipped, decayed, or broken tooth. A special light is then used to harden and bond it to the tooth underneath. The composite resin is then contoured and polished to look like natural enamel.

HOW DOES BONDING WORK?

Fractured teeth prior to bonding.

The enamel has been etched in preparation for the attachment of the composite resin.

Composite resin has been applied. Bonding is painless and can usually be accomplished in one appointment.

Porcelain Veneers

Natural – looking, strong and stain resistant, wafer-thin porcelain veneers can be used on just one or multiple teeth to improve the appearance of a crooked, discolored, worn or chipped smile.To create perfect fit and adhesion, your dentist most likely will need to reduce the thickness of the teeth, then chemically etch the enamel before placing the veneers.The beauty of porcelain is that it resists staining and can even strengthen the tooth when bonded correctly.

HOW IS A PORCELAIN VENEER PLACED?

A porcelain veneer will be placed on the stained left central incisor.

Once placed, the veneer is polymerized (cured) by high intensity light for a few seconds.

The enamel is reduced to help make room for the veneer. Once reduction is complete, an impression of the prepared tooth is made so that the porcelain veneer can be constructed in the dental laboratory.

The veneer looks just like a natural tooth, and the surrounding tissue is healthy.

The remaining enamel surface of the tooth and the inside portion of the veneer are etched and coated with a resin cement, then the veneer is placed on the tooth.

Crowns

A full crown is a 360- degree replacement of the tooth enamel as well as some dentin. Also called caps, crowns can be used to make a crooked smile appear straighter or to repair broken or damaged teeth. A crown also can be placed on an implant to replace a missing tooth. Crowns often ar use side -by- side with veneers in a full-mouth restorative treatment.

HOW IS A CROWN PLACED?

The tooth is severely fractured and chipped, making placement of a crown the best treatment alternative.

The final crown is shaped to look and feel natural then is attached with special dental cement. The esthetic goal is to make the crown appear as if it’s naturally emerging from the soft tissue.

Half of the tooth has been prepared, showing the approximate amount of tooth structure that has been removed.

The tooth has been fully prepared to allow space for the porcelain (and often an underlying layer of metal for support).

The new crown is placed. Notice how it will fit up under the gum tissue to hide the margin (junction) between the natural tooth and the crown.

Bridges

A bridge is a replacement of a missing tooth or teeth. A fixed bridge is cemented in place, whereas a removable bridge can be taken out for cleaning. A bridge can be retained by adjacent teeth or implants. Although most fixed bridges have a metal substructure, all -ceramic bridges are now possible thanks to advances in ceramic materials. Once the bridge is constructed, your dentist will try it in so you can evaluate its fit, color,and size and make sure your bite is correct. Any necessary modifications can be made at this time, then reglazing or polishing is performed, and the bridge is cemented in place.

HOW A CONVENTIONAL FIXED BRIDGE WORKS

A conventional three-unit bridge will be used to replace the missing central incisor.

The metal framework of the bridge, to which porcelain will be fused, is tried in the mouth. All-ceramic frameworks are also available.

One tooth on either side of the missing tooth is prepared to retain the fixed bridge.

The final porcelain-fused-to-metal bridge is positioned over the teeth and just under the gum tissue to hide the seam between the porcelain and metal.

HOW A RESIN-BONDED BRIDGE IS ATTACHED

A resin-bonded bridge will be used to replace the missing central incisor.

Notice how no metal is visible from the front.

View of the roof of the mouth. The enamel on the backs of the two adjacent is reduced slightly.

The backs of the teeth and the inside of the metal “wings" are etched. A strong composite resin cement is used to bond the metal to the teeth.

This inside view reveals how the strong and yet thin metal wings have now bonded the replacement tooth to the adjacent teeth.

Implants

One of the most exciting advancements in dentistry has been the dental implant .it’s a natural-looking, usually permanent, secure way of restoring or replacing missing teeth that have  allowed millions of people who have been unable to chew for years to regain the chewing ability of their youth. In most cases, implants are titanium anchor posts that are surgically placed in the jawbone and capped with a full crown or bridge.

HOW IMPLANTS ARE PLACED

This fractured tooth requires extraction.

The superimposition shows the position of the implant in the final smile.

Appearance of the gums following tooth extraction.

The final result after implant and crown placement is both functional and esthetic.

Cross section showing the relationship of the implant to the bone and gums following surgical implant placement and attachment of a crown.

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